Berita Perang Israel-Hamas dan Krisis Timur Tengah: Update Langsung

The Iranian government exerts its military influence through various armed groups across the Middle East, but the extent of its control over their actions is a topic of debate. The recent attack by an Iranian-backed Iraqi militia on a U.S. base in northwest Jordan has brought this question to the forefront. The attack resulted in the death of three soldiers and left dozens injured.

Iranian-backed groups, which share the common goals of driving the U.S. military out of the region and diminishing Israel’s power, vary in their relationships and histories with Tehran. While Iran provides support to these groups, including weapons, training, financing, and other forms of assistance, it does not necessarily dictate their actions, according to experts and U.S. intelligence officials.

The groups, most of which are Shiite, with the exception of Hamas, have been able to obtain weapons parts and engage in manufacturing or retrofitting activities with Iran’s support. Additionally, they have their own revenue-generating activities, both legal and illegal.

Each militia has its own agenda based on its home country. For example, the Houthi movement in Yemen has gained influence by taking on major powers, attacking shipping, and provoking retaliatory strikes from the U.S. and its allies. This aligns with Iran’s objective to challenge Israel and the U.S.

Hezbollah in Lebanon, a group with longstanding ties to Iran, takes into account the risks of Israeli reprisals on Lebanese civilians when deciding on attacks against Israel. The level of support Iran provides to Hezbollah is estimated to be $700 million annually.

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Iran has also provided direct cash subsidies and in-kind funding, such as oil and thousands of AK-47s, to its allied groups. However, it is important to note that while these groups receive support from Iran, they are not mere puppets and still maintain their own autonomy.

Iran has tailored its messaging about the militias based on its audience, portraying the “Axis of Resistance” as under its leadership and control when addressing domestic and Middle Eastern audiences, but denying direct control when speaking to Western audiences.

This complex web of relationships and influence allows Iran to maneuver within a gray area, presenting different narratives to different audiences.

Sumber : https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/14/world/middleeast/iran-militias.html